COGNITIVE STRATEGIES OF S²R MODEL USED BY HIGH PROFICIENCY LEARNERS OF THE ENGLISH DEPARTMENT, PETRA CHRISTIAN UNIVERSITY

Mega Sri Yunita Samalaty, Herwindy Maria Tedjaatmadja

Abstract


This is a qualitative and quantitative study on cognitive strategies of S²R model and specific techniques employed by high proficient learners of the English Department, Petra Christian University. The high proficient learners represented by nine final-year students who have an average of very good grade (≥B+) in all language skill courses offered by the department. The data was taken by conducting interviews to each of learners based on Oxford (2011) theory. The findings showed all types of cognitive strategies are used by the high proficient learners. The highest percentage of cognitive strategies used was going beyond the immediate data (100%), the second highest was using senses to understand and remember (81%), the third highest was conceptualizing broadly (78%), then it followed by conceptualizing with details (76%), reasoning (67%), and activating knowledge (56%). Moreover, there were a lot of varieties of the specific techniques employed by the participants. The most common specific techniques used were guessing, watching English speaking films, skimming, comparing English to mother tongue, reading novels and magazine, and brainstorming. In conclusion, all proficiency learners use all cognitive strategies but they might employ different techniques in their learning process.


Keywords


Cognitive strategies, S²R model, high proficiency learners

Full Text:

PDF

References


Birmingham, U. o. (2012). Introduction of language. (Unpublished essay).

Breen, M. (2001). Learner contributions to language learning:new directions in research. New York: Pearson Education Limited.

Cohen, A. D., & Aphek, E. (1980). Retention of second-language vocabulary over time: Investigating the role of mnemonic associations . System, 221-235.

Gharbavi, A., & Mousavi, S. (2012). Do language proficiency levels correspond to language learning strategy adoption? English Language Teaching Journal, V, 118.

Gilakjani, A., & Ahmadi, S. (2011). The effect of visual, auditory and kinaesthetic learning style in language teaching. V. Retrieved November 10th, 2016 from http://www.ipedr.com/vol5/no2/104-H10249.pdf

Griffith, C. (2013). Second Language Acquisition : Strategy Factor in Successful Language Learning. Clevedon, GB: Multilingual Matters.

Maria, H. (2004). The Language Learning Strategies Used by the Higher Proficiency Learners of the 1990 and 2000 Batches of the English Department. (NO:1239/ING/2004). Unpublished Undergraduate Thesis. Petra Christian University, Surabaya

Meyer, H. (2008). The Pedagogical Implications of L1 User in L2 CLassroom. Retrieved November 16th, 2016 from www.kyoai.ac.jp/college/ronshuo/no_008/meyer1.pdf

Oxford, R. (2003). Language learning styles and strategies: an overview. Retrieved November 2nd, 2016 from http://web.ntpu.edu.tw/~language/workshop/read2.pdf

Oxford, R. L. (2011). Teaching and researching language learning strategies. New York: Routledge.

Pappa, E. (2015, March 24). How to help English learners read more quickly. Retrieved November 13th, 2016 from BRITISH COUNCIL: https://www.britishcouncil.org/voices-magazine/how-help-english-learners-read-more-quickly

Roberts, L. (2009, July 13). Lesson Planet. Retrieved November 20th, 2016 from www.lessonplanet.com: https://www.lessonplanet.com/article/reading-using-sequence-as-a-reading-strategy

Sanyal, B. (2013). Breaking This Boundaries: A One-Word Approach to Planning Education. New York: Springer Science & Business Media.

Schmitt, N. (1997). Vocabulary learning strategies. In N. Schmitt, & M. McCarthy (Eds.), Vocabulary: Description, Acquisition, and Pedagogy (pp. 199-227). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


Jurnal telah terindeks oleh :