Ritualization of Online Worship During COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Study in GKMI ARK
The COVID-19 outbreak that first happened in the city of Wuhan, China on January 2020 did not take long until it reached other parts of the world and then declared by World Health Organization as a pandemic within two month. In Indonesia, Mr. President Joko Widodo urged every citizen to do academic, economical, and religious activities at home in order to slow the spread of the virus. Christian congregations are among religious groups that had been affected by government’s measures to reduce the Coronavirus transmission. While online learning and remote working have been known and practiced by some, online worship was imaginable by none. Located within the “red area” where Coronavirus transmission is high, Gereja Kristen Muria Indonesia Anugerah Rayon Kembangan (GKMI ARK) was among the first churches in Indonesia to switch from on-site to fully online worship. The pastor and elders gave new set of rituals for online worship, to which the congregation must adapt, regardless of their preparedness. Ritual can be broadly defined as a set of meaningful sequence of actions produced by ritualization. This paper aims to explore the ritualization of online worship of GKMI ARK congregation during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Arrobi, M. Z., & Nadzifah, A. (2020). Otoritas agama di era korona: Dari fragmentasi ke konvergensi? [Religious authority in the era of corona: From fragmentation to convergence?] MAARIF, 15(1), 197–215.
Bridges, J. (2014). True community. The Navigators. https://books.google.co.id/books?id=PR_0AgAAQBAJ
Cianca, J. (2018). Sacred ritual, profane space : The Roman house as early Christian meeting place. McGill-Queen's University Press.
de Langen, C. D., Flu, P. C., Hulshoff, A. A., & Hui-zinga, J. (1920). Mededeelingen van den Burgerlijken Geneeskundigen Dienst in Nederlandsch-Indië [Communications from the Civil Medical Service in the Dutch East Indies]. Resolver. https://resolver.kb.nl/resolve?urn=MMKITLV3:002275004:pdf
Harrington, L. M. (2004). Sacred place in early medieval Neoplatonism. Palgrave Macmillan.
Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., … Cao, B. (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet, 395(10223), 497–506. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5
Ihsanuddin. (2020, March 16). Jokowi: Kerja dari rumah, belajar dari rumah, ibadah di rumah perlu digencarkan [Jokowi: Working from home, learning from home, worship from home must be enacted]. Kompas. https://nasional. kompas.com/read/2020/03/16/15454571/jokowi-kerja-dari-rumah-belajar-dari-rumah-ibadah-di-rumah-perlu-digencarkan
Kissler, S. M., Tedijanto, C., Lipsitch, M., & Grad, Y. (2020). Social distancing strategies for curbing the COVID-19 epidemic. MedRxiv. https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.03.22.20041079
Koley, T. K., & Dhole, M. (2021). The COVID-19 pandemic : The deadly coronavirus outbreak in the 21st century.
Kuipers, N., Mujani, S., & Pepinsky, T. (2020). Encouraging Indonesians to pray from home during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Experimental Political Science, 1(11). https://doi.org/10.1017/XPS.2020.26
Lazuardi, I. T. (2020). Acara gereja lembang jadi klaster baru corona, semua peserta ODP - Nasional Tempo.co [Church event becomes a coronavirus cluster, all participants exposed]. Tempo. https://nasional.tempo.co/read/1323898/ acara-gereja-lembang-jadi-klaster-baru-corona-semua-peserta-odp/full&view=ok
Mazumdar, S., & Mazumdar, S. (2004). Religion and place attachment: A study of sacred places. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24(3), 385–397. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.jenvp.2004.08.005
Phillips, H., & Killingray, D. (2011). The Spanish influenza pandemic of 1918-19 : New perspec-tives. Routledge.
Poplawska, M. (2020). Performing faith: Christian music, identity and inculturation in Indonesia. Taylor & Francis. https://books.google.co.id/books?id=tTr3DwAAQBAJ
Purnamasari, D. M. (2020). Imbauan sejumlah organisasi keagamaan terkait ibadah di tengah pandemi Covid-19 [Appeals from various religious organizations regarding worship in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic]. Kompas. https://nasional.kompas.com/read/2020/03/29/09243331/imbauan-sejumlah-organisasi-keagama-an-terkait-ibadah-di-tengah-pandemi-covid
Rijal, S. (2009). Friday prayer and an islamic identity in Canberra, Australia. Journal of Indonesian Islam, 3(1), 148-167.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License